报告题目：Plant life with more than one genome
报告人：Yves Van de Peer院士，比利时根特大学
Thousands of species are currently polyploid, and contain multiple copies of their genome. On the other hand, the long-term establishment of organisms that have undergone ancient whole genome duplications (WGDs) has been exceedingly rare. The apparent paucity of ancient genome duplications and the existence of so many species that are currently polyploid provides a fascinating paradox. Interestingly, many ancient WGDs seem to have been established at very specific times in evolution, for instance during major ecological upheavals and periods of extinction. Our work has shown that WGDs observed for many different plant lineages seem to have coincided with the most recent major mass extinction, i.e. the K/Pg extinction, 66 million years ago. I will put forward different hypotheses of why polyploids, compared to their diploid progenitors, might have had some selective advantage that might explain their survival at times of extinction or environmental turmoil. On the other hand, the duplication of entire genomes also greatly increases the genomic (and physical) complexity of gene regulatory and interaction networks. It is currently unclear how the increased complexity, modularity and redundancy of duplicated gene regulatory networks might affect polyploids. Preliminary studies seem to suggest that more complex – e.g. more densely connected - duplicated networks might allow bigger and/or faster jumps in the fitness landscape, which might be advantageous in highly disturbed environments or during periods of environmental turmoil, while being disadvantageous in stable environments, where bigger ‘moves’ in the fitness landscape might be maladaptive or detrimental.
报告人介绍：报告人是国际著名的基因组学专家，尤其在植物基因组多倍化研究领域有突出贡献，目前是Nature, Cell, Nat Rev Genet等多个著名杂志的审稿人，也是12个杂志的副主编。截至目前，发表了近400篇高水平文章。